Spring MVC vs. Struts

What's the Difference?

Spring MVC and Struts are both popular Java web frameworks used for building web applications. However, they have some key differences. Spring MVC is a part of the larger Spring framework and follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern. It provides a flexible and lightweight approach to building web applications, with features like dependency injection and inversion of control. On the other hand, Struts is a standalone framework that also follows the MVC pattern. It provides a more structured and opinionated approach to web development, with features like built-in validation and support for internationalization. While both frameworks have their strengths, Spring MVC is often preferred for its flexibility and integration capabilities, while Struts is known for its simplicity and ease of use. Ultimately, the choice between the two depends on the specific requirements and preferences of the project.


AttributeSpring MVCStruts
Framework TypeMVCMVC
Release Year20042000
Programming LanguageJavaJava
ArchitectureFront ControllerFront Controller
ConfigurationXML and Annotation-basedXML and Annotation-based
Request MappingFlexible and customizableXML-based
ValidationSupports built-in validationSupports built-in validation
View TechnologyJSP, Thymeleaf, etc.JSP, FreeMarker, etc.
Interceptor SupportYesYes
Integration with ORMSupports various ORM frameworksSupports various ORM frameworks
Community SupportActive and large communityActive and large community

Further Detail


When it comes to Java web application frameworks, Spring MVC and Struts are two popular choices. Both frameworks have their own strengths and weaknesses, and understanding their attributes can help developers make informed decisions when selecting the right framework for their projects. In this article, we will compare the key attributes of Spring MVC and Struts, exploring their architecture, features, community support, and performance.


Spring MVC follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern, which promotes separation of concerns and modularity. It provides a flexible and extensible framework for building web applications. On the other hand, Struts also follows the MVC pattern but is based on the Front Controller design pattern. It uses a central controller, known as the ActionServlet, to handle all requests and dispatch them to appropriate actions. This design allows for centralized control and easy integration with other frameworks.


Both Spring MVC and Struts offer a wide range of features to simplify web application development. Spring MVC provides a comprehensive set of features, including robust request handling, flexible URL mapping, powerful data binding, and support for various view technologies such as JSP, Thymeleaf, and FreeMarker. It also offers built-in support for validation, internationalization, and security. On the other hand, Struts provides features like declarative validation, built-in support for AJAX, and a rich tag library for creating dynamic web pages. It also offers support for various view technologies like JSP and Velocity.

Community Support

Community support is crucial for any framework as it ensures the availability of resources, documentation, and active development. Spring MVC has a large and vibrant community with extensive documentation, tutorials, and forums. It is backed by the Spring ecosystem, which provides a wide range of libraries and tools for enterprise application development. Struts also has a strong community support, although it may not be as extensive as Spring MVC. It has a dedicated user base and active development, with resources available for learning and troubleshooting.


Performance is an important consideration when choosing a web framework, as it directly impacts the user experience. Spring MVC is known for its lightweight and efficient architecture, which allows for high-performance web applications. It leverages the power of the Spring framework, which provides features like dependency injection and aspect-oriented programming to optimize performance. Struts, on the other hand, is also known for its performance but may not be as lightweight as Spring MVC. It utilizes caching and other optimization techniques to deliver fast response times.


Integration with other frameworks and technologies is another crucial aspect to consider. Spring MVC seamlessly integrates with the Spring ecosystem, allowing developers to leverage other Spring modules like Spring Security, Spring Data, and Spring Boot. It also provides easy integration with popular Java EE technologies like JPA, JTA, and JMS. Struts, on the other hand, integrates well with other Apache projects like Hibernate, Tiles, and Log4j. It also supports integration with Java EE technologies, making it a suitable choice for enterprise applications.


In conclusion, both Spring MVC and Struts are powerful Java web application frameworks with their own unique attributes. Spring MVC offers a flexible and modular architecture, extensive features, strong community support, and high performance. It is well-suited for building modern web applications and integrates seamlessly with the Spring ecosystem. On the other hand, Struts provides a centralized control approach, declarative validation, AJAX support, and integration with other Apache projects. It is a solid choice for enterprise applications and has an active user base. Ultimately, the choice between Spring MVC and Struts depends on the specific requirements and preferences of the project at hand.

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