# Bohr Atomic Model vs. Schrödinger Atomic Model

## What's the Difference?

The Bohr Atomic Model, proposed by Niels Bohr in 1913, describes the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons in specific energy levels or orbits. These orbits are quantized, meaning that electrons can only exist in certain discrete energy states. On the other hand, the Schrödinger Atomic Model, developed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1926, is based on the wave-particle duality of electrons. It describes electrons as wave-like entities that exist in regions of space called orbitals. Unlike the Bohr model, the Schrödinger model does not provide specific paths or orbits for electrons but rather gives probabilities of finding electrons in different regions around the nucleus. Overall, while the Bohr model is simpler and provides a basic understanding of atomic structure, the Schrödinger model is more accurate and comprehensive, incorporating the wave nature of electrons.

## Comparison

Attribute | Bohr Atomic Model | Schrödinger Atomic Model |
---|---|---|

Year Proposed | 1913 | 1926 |

Key Contributor | Niels Bohr | Erwin Schrödinger |

Basic Idea | Electrons orbit the nucleus in fixed energy levels | Electrons exist in electron clouds or orbitals |

Mathematical Description | Uses simple equations and postulates | Described by wave functions and probability distributions |

Quantum Numbers | Only uses principal quantum number (n) | Uses principal quantum number (n), azimuthal quantum number (l), magnetic quantum number (m), and spin quantum number (s) |

Electron Position | Defines specific orbits or energy levels | Describes probability of finding an electron in a specific region |

Energy Levels | Energy levels are quantized and discrete | Energy levels are quantized and discrete |

Electron Movement | Electrons move in circular orbits | Electrons move in wave-like patterns |

Limitations | Does not fully explain electron behavior in complex atoms | Does not provide exact electron positions, only probabilities |

## Further Detail

### Introduction

The study of atomic structure has been a fundamental aspect of understanding the behavior of matter. Over the years, several atomic models have been proposed to explain the behavior of electrons within an atom. Two prominent models are the Bohr Atomic Model and the Schrödinger Atomic Model. While both models contribute significantly to our understanding of atomic structure, they differ in their approach and assumptions. In this article, we will explore the attributes of these two models and highlight their similarities and differences.

### Bohr Atomic Model

The Bohr Atomic Model, proposed by Niels Bohr in 1913, was a significant advancement in atomic theory. It was based on the idea that electrons orbit the nucleus in specific energy levels or shells. Bohr's model introduced the concept of quantized energy levels, where electrons can only occupy certain discrete orbits. These orbits were referred to as "stationary states."

One of the key attributes of the Bohr Atomic Model is its ability to explain the stability of atoms. According to Bohr, electrons occupy the lowest energy level available, known as the ground state. When an electron absorbs energy, it jumps to a higher energy level or excited state. However, it cannot remain in this state indefinitely and eventually returns to its original energy level, releasing the absorbed energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon is known as the emission spectrum.

Another important attribute of the Bohr Atomic Model is its explanation of the line spectra observed in atomic emission and absorption experiments. The model suggests that each electron transition between energy levels corresponds to a specific wavelength of light. This concept provides a basis for understanding the unique spectral patterns observed for different elements.

However, the Bohr Atomic Model has its limitations. It fails to explain the behavior of atoms with more than one electron accurately. It assumes that electrons move in circular orbits, which contradicts the principles of wave-particle duality. Additionally, the model does not account for the concept of electron spin, which is crucial in understanding the magnetic properties of atoms.

### Schrödinger Atomic Model

The Schrödinger Atomic Model, also known as the Quantum Mechanical Model, was developed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1926. This model revolutionized our understanding of atomic structure by incorporating the principles of wave mechanics. Unlike the Bohr Atomic Model, which described electrons as particles with definite orbits, the Schrödinger Model treats electrons as wave-like entities.

One of the key attributes of the Schrödinger Atomic Model is its ability to describe the probability distribution of finding an electron in a particular region around the nucleus. Instead of specifying the exact path of an electron, the model provides a wave function, represented by the mathematical equation known as the Schrödinger equation. The square of this wave function, known as the electron density, gives the probability of finding an electron at a specific location.

Another important attribute of the Schrödinger Atomic Model is its ability to explain the concept of electron spin. Spin is an intrinsic property of electrons, and it plays a crucial role in determining the magnetic properties of atoms. The model incorporates the concept of spin into its mathematical framework, allowing for a more comprehensive understanding of atomic behavior.

However, the Schrödinger Atomic Model also has its limitations. It is a complex mathematical model that requires advanced mathematical techniques to solve the Schrödinger equation accurately. Additionally, it does not provide a visual representation of atomic structure, making it challenging to conceptualize the behavior of electrons within an atom.

### Similarities and Differences

While the Bohr Atomic Model and the Schrödinger Atomic Model differ in their approach and assumptions, they share some similarities. Both models recognize the existence of discrete energy levels within an atom. They also provide a framework for understanding the emission and absorption spectra observed in atomic experiments.

However, the key difference between the two models lies in their treatment of electrons. The Bohr Atomic Model considers electrons as particles moving in specific orbits, while the Schrödinger Atomic Model treats electrons as wave-like entities with a probability distribution. The Bohr Model provides a simplified representation of atomic structure, while the Schrödinger Model offers a more comprehensive and accurate description.

Another difference is the level of complexity. The Bohr Atomic Model is relatively straightforward and can be easily understood without advanced mathematical knowledge. On the other hand, the Schrödinger Atomic Model requires a deep understanding of wave mechanics and complex mathematical techniques to solve the Schrödinger equation.

Furthermore, the Bohr Atomic Model is limited to single-electron systems and fails to explain the behavior of multi-electron atoms accurately. In contrast, the Schrödinger Atomic Model can be applied to both single-electron and multi-electron systems, providing a more comprehensive understanding of atomic structure.

### Conclusion

In conclusion, the Bohr Atomic Model and the Schrödinger Atomic Model have significantly contributed to our understanding of atomic structure. While the Bohr Model introduced the concept of quantized energy levels and explained the stability of atoms, the Schrödinger Model revolutionized atomic theory by treating electrons as wave-like entities and providing a probability distribution of their location. Both models have their strengths and limitations, with the Bohr Model offering simplicity and the Schrödinger Model providing accuracy and comprehensiveness. By studying and comparing these models, scientists have been able to unravel the mysteries of atomic behavior and pave the way for further advancements in the field of quantum mechanics.

Comparisons may contain inaccurate information about people, places, or facts. Please report any issues.